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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 57-133

Online since Tuesday, November 30, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Child oral health Highly accessed article p. 57
Yasmen Elhadi Elamin Elsadek
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_29_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Is zinc oxide eugenol cement still impeding the use of resin-based restoration? A systematic review Highly accessed article p. 59
Fawaz Pullishery, Hajer Ayed Alhejoury, Mohammed Turkistani, Yasser Refay Souror
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_14_21  
Background: The use of zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), along with resin restoration or cementation, is often a debatable topic in dentistry. This systematic review is aimed to explore the effect of ZOE on various properties of resin-based dental materials. Materials and Methods: An electronic research was carried out using the relevant keywords in different search engines such as MEDLINE/PubMed, Ebscohost, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and EMBASE SciFinder based on PRISMA guidelines. Only articles in the English language were included along with other specific inclusion criteria. Results: The entire articles were assessed for the eligibility and final review included 30 studies that were then classified according to the type of test conducted on the resin-based material. Conclusion: There is no consensus on the deleterious effect of ZOE on resin-based dental material. However, all the tests conducted were in vitro and most of them showed a significant reduction in the quality of resin restorative and cement materials when used with ZOE.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effect of different manufacturing techniques on color in zirconia-based all ceramics p. 68
Mehmet Ugur, idris Kavut
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_30_21  
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of different veneering techniques on the color, translucency, of zirconia-based systems. Materials and Methods: Specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12): layering (L), pressing (P), and computed aided design (CAD)-on (CO). Group L was veneered with nano-fluorapatite veneering ceramic. Group P was heat pressed with fluorapatite glass-ceramic ingots. Group CO the veneering ceramics were designed with and milled from lithium disilicate glass-ceramic blocks in CAD/computed aided manufacturing unit. Color parameters (L* a* b*) were measured with a spectrophotometer and color difference (ΔE), and translucency parameter (TP) properties were calculated. The results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). Results: There were significant differences between the ΔE of the groups (P < 0.05). The highest value was observed in the L group (ΔE = 4.17 ± 0.98); the lowest value was observed in the P group (ΔE = 2.08 ± 0.54). There were significant differences between the TP values of the groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Optical properties of the zirconia-based systems are greatly affected by the fabrication techniques.
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Retention of Candida Species on Plastic and Bamboo Toothbrushes. A Comparative Study p. 73
AR Avaneethram, Faizal C Peedikayil, TP Chandru, Soni Kottayi, TP Aparna, Shabnam Ismail
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_19_21  
Background: Tooth brushing is the basic mode of oral hygiene practice. Various studies have shown that microorganisms can colonize on the tooth brush heads. Newer tooth brushes which are biodegradable are available in the market. This study compares the fungal colonization of plastic brush head and bamboo brush head. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were randomly allocated into two groups with 25 each in both groups. Group 1 was given toothbrush with plastic brush head and group 2 was given toothbrushes with bamboo head. After 30 days, toothbrushes were collected. The bristles of the brush was removed from its base and put on to the petri dishes with sabouraud dextrose agar and, incubated at 28°C, with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide for 5 days. After growth was identified, pure colonies were transferred on Chromagar for the identification of Candida species. Results: Fungal growth was observed in 48% of plastic brush heads and 76% in bamboo brush heads. Candida Albicans was the most common species isolated from both plastic and bamboo tooth brushes, followed by Candida tropicalis. C. Albicans were seen as light green-colored smooth colonies; Candida tropicalis appeared as metallic blue-colored raised colonies. Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii were also observed. Conclusion: Fungal growth was more in bamboo tooth brushes than in plastic tooth brush even though it is statistically insignificant C. albicans is most predominant species found in the tooth brush head.
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Awareness and education of medical students toward artificial intelligence and radiology: A cross-sectional multicenter survey at Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh p. 77
Rohan Sachdev, Kriti Garg, Akash Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_17_21  
Context: Artificial intelligence (AI) is focused on understanding the essence of human intelligence and developing smart artifacts that can perform the tasks that intelligence is said to entail when performed by humans. Aims: The aim of the study was to understand medical students views, understanding and level of confidence in working on AI and explore if AI influences their career intentions with specific regard to radiology. Settings and Design: 401 medical students of two medical colleges were included. Subjects and Methods: Four and one medical students of two medical colleges were included to complete an anonymous electronic survey consisting of Likert and dichotomous questions. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed with simple descriptive statistics in frequency and percentages. Results: In this study, 89.11% was the response rate of participants and majority (30.9%) of medical students strongly agreed about the awareness of AI. Nearly 36.3% of the medical students disagreed that they were less likely to consider a career in radiology due to AI. Around 29% of medical students strongly agreed for the scope of integration of AI in medical education of India. Conclusions: Medical students recognize the significance of AI and are eager to get involved. AI medical college curriculum should be broadened and upgraded. Students must be provided with practical use cases and drawbacks of AI so that they may not feel discouraged from pursuing radiology.
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Assessing stress and burnout in dental students in a dental institution p. 82
Avijit Avasthi, Sakshi Sharma Aasdhir
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_11_21  
Background: Dental students feel stress in their professional education such as fear of examinations, burden of workload, stress in completion of academic course, and adjustment in college atmosphere. The objective of the study was to assess stress among dental students and its association with academic year of training and gender differences in perceived stress. Materials and Methods: A 31-item self-constructed Modified Garbee's Dental Environmental Stress Survey (1980) Questionnaire was distributed among students to obtain their stress response on a 4-point Likert scale with responses ranked: 1 – not stressful, 2 – slightly stressful, 3 – moderately stressful, and 4 – very stressful. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0, Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp. Results: Responses were obtained from 232 students; 74.2% were female and 24.6% were male. Top stressors were fear of failure, insecurity of future, stress of examinations, fear of excessive workload, assigned work burden, unavailability of clinical cases, the lack of time to complete work, less time for recreation, coping with competition among classmates, lack of confidence in career decision, receiving criticism of work from teachers, and the lack of confidence to be successful student. Less stressful responses were difficulty in learning preclinical procedures, learning environment created by faculty, the attitude toward faculty, relationship with colleagues, financial stress, impact on personal health, discrimination due to race, class, etc., The mean stress scores were more in preclinical years (BDS 1st and 2nd years) when compared to clinical years (BDS 3rd and 4th years). Stress perceived by female students outweighed male students. Conclusion: Therefore stress reduction strategies need to be incorporated in dental curriculum.
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Comparison of Porphyromonas gingivalis count and salivary immunoglobulin A against lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal health and disease p. 88
Abhinav Subhashchandra Baheti, Pushpa S Pudakalkatti, Kishore G Bhat
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_9_21  
Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) have been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare P. gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples and salivary (immunoglobulin A [IgA]) antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. gingivalis in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: Totally sixty subjects were included, thirty subjects in healthy group and thirty subjects in chronic periodontitis group. Subgingival plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were obtained from each study subject. P. gingivalis (colony-forming units [CFUs]) were detected using culture method, and salivary IgA levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Comparisons between the healthy and chronic periodontitis groups were done for P. gingivalis CFUs/ml (CFUs/milliliter) as well as for salivary IgA levels using Mann–Whitney U-test. Correlation between CFUs/ml of P. gingivalis and salivary IgA levels was also assessed in both the groups. Results: Although P. gingivalis CFUs/ml count was more in the chronic periodontitis group, difference was not statistically significant. Salivary IgA levels were significantly higher in the chronic periodontitis group compared to the healthy group. No correlation was observed between CFUs/ml of P. gingivalis and salivary IgA levels in the healthy group as well as the chronic periodontitis group. Conclusions: Increased levels of specific salivary antibodies (IgA) against LPS from P. gingivalis are associated with periodontal disease. Salivary IgA level against LPS from P. gingivalis can be a promising indicator in the serological diagnosis of periodontal disease.
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Comparative assessment of width of neutral zones recorded using two neutral zone impression methods (phonetic and swallowing) and two different materials (tissue conditioner and polyether): A crossover pilot study p. 93
Manjita M Parab, Meena A Aras, Vidya Chitre, Anchal Qanungo
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_67_20  
Statement of Problem: Medium body polyether impression material has been recently used as neutral zone recording material. However, there is a lack of studies comparing it with routinely used material. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to compare neutral zone width of phonetic (PNZ) and swallowing (SNZ) neutral zone impression techniques with a tissue conditioner and a polyether impression material within the same subjects. Materials and Methods: Assessments of neutral zone width were carried out in ten completely edentulous patients with advanced mandibular resorption. On each patient, four neutral zone impressions were recorded as follows: SNZ with tissue conditioner material, PNZ with tissue conditioner material, SNZ with polyether impression material, PNZ with polyether impression material. Putty indices were made of each neutral zone and traced on graph paper. The buccolingual measurements were made at five different locations, midline, right first premolar, left first premolar, right first molar, and left first molar. Statistical analysis was done using Mann–Whitney U test. Results: There was no significant difference observed when comparison was done either between materials or techniques. Conclusion: Medium body polyether can be a viable alternative to conventional tissue conditioner material and can be used with both swallowing and phonetic techniques with equal efficacy.
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Knowledge, attitude and practices of health-care professionals related to COVID-19: A multi country survey p. 100
Syed Nahid Basheer, Syed Wali Peeran, Syed Ali Peeran, Mohammed Zameer, Gulam Anwar Naviwala, Ahmed Taher Elhassan
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_28_21  
Background: COVID-19 was declared as the global pandemic on March 11, 2020 because of the rapid increase in the cases. The high mortality rate and the spread have become the biggest concern of the hour. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of health-care professionals residing in various countries regarding COVID-19. Methodology: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted and a questionnaire was administered among the participants through E-mail. The statistical significance was calculated for the collected data. Results: A total of 457 participants participated in the survey. Male (45.3%) and female (54.7%) participated with good knowledge (86%) regarding the COVID-19 transmission, while 59% participants reported of using N95 masks and 60% of the participants had attended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines workshop. Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed a wide range of variations in both awareness and attitude of the participants. The knowledge was found to be appropriate while some of the practice-related factors need to be changed. There is a need of regular training, webinars and various educational programs to update the knowledge and the CDC guidelines to be followed.
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Comparative evaluation of effect of three beverages on color stability of two brands of acrylic denture teeth: An In vitro study p. 107
Sreelakshmy K S. Kammath, Sapna Bhaskaran, Sudeep Saratchandran, Sangeeth K Cherian, Sreeja C Babu, Anu Mary Joy
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_23_21  
Context: During clinical use, artificial teeth are exposed to saliva, beverages, and cleaning agents and such materials are prone to the absorption and adsorption processes. Certain foods can promote discoloration, surface degradation, and changes in other properties of artificial teeth. Aims: This study evaluated the effect of three different beverages (Dasamoolarishtam an Ayurvedic medicine, tea, grape juice, and distilled water) on color stability of two brands of acrylic resin denture teeth when exposed for four immersion times. Settings and Design: This is an in vitro experimental study. Subjects and Methods: Maxillary right central incisors of two brands of A1 shade were used. The specimens were placed in the center of the measuring head of a spectrophotometer with the aid of a silicone putty jig. Measurements were taken as follows, first (T0), after 1 day (T1), 7 days (T2), 15 days (T3), and 30 days (T4) of immersion in the solutions. Statistics: Comparison of color change among different beverages in each brand at different time interval was carried out using one-way ANOVA test (F test) with Scheffe Multiple Comparisons (post hoc test). Results: The results show that among the three beverages tested, Dasamoolarishtam produced maximum color changes. Conclusions: It was concluded that maximum color change was seen on exposure to Dasamoolarishtam and in Rolex teeth set.
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Assessment of the knowledge regarding the management of avulsed teeth before and after oral health education in high school children (14–16 years) in Central India p. 116
Vandana Kokane, Noopur Kokane, Pratik Burad, Saivi Datar, Rucha Saoji, Sakshi Pathak
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_2_21  
Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the common dental problems seen in children. Informing that avulsed tooth can be reimplanted and method to store the tooth, the importance of immediate replantation without time loss, etc., can save many avulsed teeth, preventing psychological trauma and cost of prosthetic rehabilitation. The study aims to assess knowledge and create awareness regarding the management of avulsed teeth among school-going children (14–16 years). Methodology: The study was conducted among 1231 schoolchildren of age group 14–16 years of different urban schools of Nagpur to assess the knowledge regarding the management of avulsed teeth before and after an informative lecture. The mean knowledge score pre- and postpresentation was statistically analyzed using SPSS 23.0. Results: Students lacked knowledge about the management of avulsed teeth. However, their mean knowledge score increased to 3.15 from 1.98 after oral health presentations focusing on the management of avulsed teeth. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding avulsed tooth and its management among schoolchildren is barely adequate and requires the right method of education via seminars and dental health programmers.
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Learning statistics: Interprofessional survey of attitudes toward statistics using SATS-36 p. 121
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Sujata Khobragade, Htay Lwin, Mila Nu Nu Htay, Nan Nitra Than, Khine Lynn Phyu, Adinegara Lutfi Abas
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_68_20  
Context: In medical education, statistics is part of the core training to enable the students to plan, design, analyze, and interpret the experimental data. It is believed that attitudes toward statistics play an important role in learning statistics. Aims: We conducted this study to assess the attitudes toward statistics among undergraduate medical and dentistry students. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was done among 3rd-year medical students and 4th-year dentistry students in a private medical college in Malaysia. Subjects and Methods: We employed purposive sampling and invited the 3rd-year medical students and the 4th-year dentistry students before the commencement of the biostatistics course. A total of 206 students participated in this study. We utilized SATS-36 scale which consisted of 36 items that were divided into six subscales such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, and Spearman's rho correlation. Results: The students had positive attitudes toward statistics in most of the domains of SATS-36 except difficulty. There were no significant differences of attitudes toward statistics between male and female students. However, male students had a significantly higher mean score in the interest domain (mean difference 0.40 [95% confidence interval 0.07, 0.74]). Conclusions: The undergraduate medical and dentistry students had positive attitudes toward statistics, but the students found that statistics is a difficult subject. Hence, the instructors need to understand the student's attitudes and create effective learning strategies which not only provide knowledge and skills but also change student's attitudes toward the desired direction.
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Age and reasons for first dental visit in a tertiary care hospital in South India p. 126
Shini Susan Samuel, Grace Rebekah
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_26_21  
Background: Early visit to the dentist with an aim of prevention has been advocated universally, but the timing for seeking dental treatment differs among different countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the timing and reasons for the first dental visit among children attending the dental clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu, South India. Methods: This hospital-based study reviewed the dental records of children who had visited the dental clinic from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019. All those between 0 and 10 years of age and visiting a dentist for the first time were included in the study. The continuous variables were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The categorical variables were calculated using Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and two-proportion test. Results: We reviewed the dental records of 1005 children (60% boys and 40% girls). The most frequent age for the first dental visit was between 5 and 6 years. The most common reasons for visits to the dental clinic were pain (23.8%) and dental caries (16.6%). Only 3.8% of children had their first dental visit by 1 year of age and primarily for therapeutic purposes. Dental caries and traumatic injuries were more frequent in children below the age of 3 years. Conclusion: The present study found pain as the most frequent reason for the visit, but there was a delay in first dental visits among children. This study suggests effective oral health policies for children and a need to change the perception and practices among the dental professionals in the region. Timing of the first dental visit of a child can help us to determine the quality of dental care a child receives. Delayed dental visit among children in this study indicates the ineffective oral health policies and the gap that exists between the pediatric health-care providers in India.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Air droplet versus airborne transmission – Essential concepts for understanding COVID-19 infection control p. 131
Vinoth Kumar Kalidoss, Satvinder Singh Bakshi
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_25_21  
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The pandemic for women in dentistry: A hard row to hoe p. 132
Harpreet Singh Dhillon, Bindiya Manalikuzhiyil, Shibu Sasidharan, Gurpreet Kaur Dhillon, M Babitha
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_18_21  
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