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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| July-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 27, 2016

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Significance and determinants of tobacco use: A brief review
Fatma Mojtaba Alsaid Ahmed, Syed Wali Peeran
July-December 2016, 4(2):33-38
Tobacco is a plant product derived from a variety of plants belonging to the genus Nicotiana. The alkaloid nicotine present in the plant leafs is a stimulant and has an addictive effect. The tobacco plants have been historically grown and used for recreational purposes by the American local population. The dried tobacco leaves are consumed as chewing tobacco, snuff, and smoked in a variety of dispensations. Tobacco use (TU) has an adverse effect on various body systems and is a determinant for different diseases ranging from cancers to atherosclerosis. TU is a modifiable environmental risk factor for various diseases. Hence, with public health education and behavior modification, its burden can be reduced in a given society. Thus, the understanding of the incidence and prevalence of its use is necessary. This review attempts to sum up the significance and determinants of TU.
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Comparison of working length determination using apex locator and manual method - ex vivo study
Jhadye Alves Carneiro, Fredson Marcio Acris de Carvalho, Andre Augusto Franco Marques, Emilio Carlos Sponchiado Junior, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, Leonardo Cantanhede Oliveira Goncalves
July-December 2016, 4(2):39-43
Background: Electronic apex locators can be a useful adjunct with a high level of accuracy for determining the real root canal length in clinical practice. Aim: The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the accuracy of electronic apex locator for real working length determination in comparison with a manual method. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted teeth were used in this study. After coronal access, manual measurement of the real working length of each root canal was performed by placing a size 10 K-file, using as reference the exceeding of the file in the apical foramen. The file was retracted by 1 mm, and its extension was measured to determine the real working length. The electronic measurement of the working length was performed in the same teeth using the Joypex 5 electronic apex locator. Results: Data were submitted to statistical analysis (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, P > 0.05) and no significant difference was found between the electronic and manual methods (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It may be concluded that the electronic apex locator is a reliable and accurate method for determining the working length of root canals, optimizing the odontometric procedure in clinical practice.
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An evaluation of diode laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in the nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study
Shilpi Gupta, Anshul Sawhney, Gourav Jain, Shishir Dhar, Bharat Gupta, Rajeshwar Singh, Shruti S Kumar, Tushar S Pathak
July-December 2016, 4(2):44-49
Introduction: Laser is an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation." They are being developed for a variety of uses in periodontal therapy. The diode laser in dentistry is used for treatment of diseased periodontal soft tissue, allowing significant bacterial reduction, and removal of the inflammatory products while creating excellent hemostasis. A flexible fiber optic delivery system allows the clinician easy and safe access around the periodontal pocket. The wavelengths are transmitted through water and are very poorly absorbed in apatite crystals, making them an excellent choice to use in a periodontally involved sulcus that has inflamed tissue and pigmented bacteria. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of diode laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of diode laser on plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) in chronic periodontitis patients and to compare the outcome with SRP alone. To evaluate the efficacy of diode laser on plaque microorganisms namely Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia. Materials and Methods: A total number of 20 generalized chronic periodontitis patients were selected for the study. A randomized split-mouth design was followed to assign quadrants in each to one of the two treatment groups: SRP alone (Group I control group) and diode laser as an adjunct to SRP (Group II test group). The assessment of clinical parameters was carried out at baseline, day 30, 90, and 180. The microbiological analysis was done prior to the start of the treatment at baseline, day 15, 30, 90, and 180, respectively. Results: At baseline mean colony count was equal in both groups, however, at all the subsequent time intervals, mean colony count was lower in Group II as compared to Group I. All the groups showed statistically significant reduction in relation to PI, GI, PPD, CAL, and microbial count. Discussion: In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the adjunctive role of diode lasers on gingival inflammation, pocket probing depth, the level of clinical attachment, and microbial count in relation to SRP using a case-control design. Recently, the use of laser has emerged as an adjunctive procedure in enhancing the clinical outcome of the periodontal treatment. It is one of the most promising new technical modalities for nonsurgical periodontal treatment and has an advantage of reaching sites that cannot be approached by conventional mechanical instrumentation. Conclusion: In the present study, an attempt was made to evalute the adjunctive role of diode lasers on plaque index, gingival index, pocket probing depth, level of clinical attachment and microbial count in relation to scaling and root planning using a case-control design. On the basis of these findings, adjunctive treatment with diode laser at a higher but clinically safe frequency (940nm) at repeated intervals showed a better efficacy in ensuring a better periodontal health as compared to SRP alone.
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Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of maxillary posterior region
Sanyog Pathak, Abishek Balani, Sonalika Wanjari Ghate, Anand S Tegginamani, HS Vanishree
July-December 2016, 4(2):50-53
Benign fibro-osseous lesion of the craniofacial complex is a broader term representing various diseases that are characterized by replacement of normal bone with hypercellular fibroblastic stroma with varying amount of pathologic ossifications and calcifications. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is of uncertain etiopathogenesis, with reactive and dysplastic processes as the suggested underlying mechanisms. The present case was unusual due to the involvement of maxillary posterior region in a young female which presented as bony enlargement.
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Concomitant supernumerary tooth with partial anodontia in the mandibular anterior region: A nonsyndromic rare condition
Madhuri Alankar Sawai
July-December 2016, 4(2):54-56
Partial anodontia is the failure of one or more teeth to develop. It is quite common in the permanent dentition. The third molars, mandibular second premolars, and maxillary lateral incisors are the most common teeth to be congenitally missing. However, it is rare in the mandibular arch. A combined occurrence of a supernumerary tooth with hypodontia is still rarer, especially when it occurs in the same dental arch and in a nonsyndromic situation. Only a few cases of this condition have been reported in the dental literature. The case reported here describes one such rare occurrence.
  - 3,496 270
Recent trends in bone fracture therapeutics and management
Samiksha Wasnik, Naga B Goparaju
July-December 2016, 4(2):31-32
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